Extension of Presentation in
6 January 2008
Energy Psychology as Brief Therapy and as a Personal Development Tool
Did you know that a 5 year old boy, suffering extreme anxiety when being left by his mother into the care of others, was relieved of his anxiety in less than 30 seconds?
Did you know that a 78 year old woman, who was sexually abused at the age of 8 was able to recover from her abuse issue in just one and a half hours?
Did you know that a 50 year old man, who had a sexually disturbing incident at the age of 5, who had 30 years of psychological and psychiatric treatment for the issue, was able to overcome the issue in just 10 minutes?
These rapid and dramatic results are routine in my experience of using energy psychology over many years.
Energy Psychology is an approach to resolving psychological issues that employs a combination of Eastern and Western principles via a kinaesthetic intervention, i.e. stimulation of the body's meridian points by tapping on them, together with a cognitive intervention, i.e. the use of phrases, thoughts, memories, affirmations to connect with the emotion of the event requiring treatment.
No one in the West would now be unaware, of the ancient 5000 year old art, of acupuncture. It is a method that now enjoys world wide acceptance by westerners both professional clinicians and layperson alike.
Acupuncture is used for the treatment of anything from an emotional disturbance to a physical disorder. Equally then, energy psychology can be viewed in the same way with the exception that no needles are used only stimulation of the meridian points by tapping.
The Discovery Statement
In principle our normal Western paradigm would dictate that should one have a negative thought then this will result in a negative emotion.
The paradigm that is employed in the practice of Energy Psychology states that when one has a negative thought this results in an imbalance to the body's energy system and this results in negative emotion. (Gary Craig)
By balancing the body's energy system whilst at the same time recalling, amongst other things, a bad memory, trauma or phobia, the negative emotion linked to that thought is broken and the psychological issue may be resolved.
The method used to re-balance the body's energy system is the stimulation of acupressure points on the body which in turn re-balances the emotional issue being addressed.
Whilst there have been a number of studies conducted to prove the efficacy of the method, it is still early days for broad acceptance of the technique. This is despite the fact that there are many practitioners using the technique out in the field who are achieving extraordinary results.
History of Energy Psychology
Energy Psychology as a practice has been around now for nearly thirty years. Its beginnings are largely attributed to Dr Roger Callahan, a cognitive psychologist, who in 1980 help a woman overcome her water phobia with a technique that later became known as 'Thought Field Therapy'.
Thought Field Therapy was discovered quite by accident, by American Psychologist, Dr. Roger Callahan in 1980. At the time Dr. Callahan was studying Applied Kinesiology and Acupuncture. He had a client called Mary who had been his patient for a little over a year. Mary had an extreme water phobia and had been to a number of other psychologists prior to visiting Dr. Callahan.
Dr Callahan felt that he was getting nowhere with Mary. Working from his home office the best that he had been able to achieve was to have Mary sit on the edge of his swimming pool with her feet dangling in the water, filled with anxiety. Mary did not use a full bath, she suffered brief stressful showers, did not go outside in the rain and was unable to look at bodies of water such as the ocean.
One day when treating Mary, she indicated that whilst thinking about her phobia of water, she would become tense in the stomach. Dr. Callahan knew from his research into Chinese Medicine that the meridian point below the eye was connected to the stomach. He asked Mary if she would mind tapping on that spot whilst talking to him about her phobia. Dr. Callahan had no idea what would happen, but after months of making no progress he was willing to try anything.
Whilst tapping below her eye she suddenly said 'it's gone', 'what's gone?' asked Dr. Callahan. Mary's phobia had disappeared. Before Dr. Callahan could say anything Mary was running towards the pool with Dr. Callahan in hot pursuit. Mary was able to put her hands in the pool and splash water on her face. That evening she went to the ocean and waded in the water. That was nearly thirty years ago and Mary is still undisturbed by her original phobia.
This discovery caused Dr. Callahan to do a great deal of research into people's emotions and to look at the various meridian points of the body and how they linked to those emotions. From his research he developed the 'Callahan Techniques' which later became known as 'Thought Field Therapy'. (Tapping the Healer Within - Roger J Callahan, Ph.D.)
As well as Dr. Roger Callahan's 'Thought Field Therapy' there are a number of other methods that fall under the term 'Energy Psychology', amongst them are:
Emotional Freedom Techniques (E.F.T.) - developed by Gary Craig
Be Set Free Fast (B.S.F.F.) - developed by Larry Phillip Nims
Negative Affect Erasing Method (N.A.E.M.) - developed by Fred Gallo
Tapas Acupressure Technique (T.A.T.) developed by Tapas Fleming.
Emotional Freedom Techniques
The Emotional Freedom Techniques (E.F.T.) is a method of Energy Psychology developed by Gary Craig, a personal development coach and a qualified engineer. Gary Craig's real love is in helping other people and because of this passion he investigated the healing ability of Thought Field Therapy (T.F.T.) and later modified and simplified it, with the intention of spreading its use as widely as possible. Emotional Freedom Techniques is both the most well know of the Energy Psychologies and the most widely used.
As a Brief Therapy Tool
Brief Therapy is a short term therapeutic approach that attempts to achieve the client's goal, usually of relieving some psychological suffering, within relatively few therapy sessions. Many clients will approach a therapist in a time of need when requiring immediate relief of their present psychological suffering. What they often want is relief from their symptoms as quickly as possible and then to move on.
Brief Therapy may well address this negative emotional state and allow the client to return to the world continuing on with life largely unaffected.
Many people would regard Milton Erickson as the pre-eminent brief therapist. It would seem that he was not concerned so much with his own personal views about the client's situation as much as he was interested in what the client thought they needed to effect healing. He would then, with the resources at his disposal, predominantly the use of clinical hypnosis, go about providing what it was that the client deemed necessary for their own healing. (Jay Hayley - "Uncommon Therapy: The Psychiatric Techniques of Milton Erickson M.D.")
There are also clients who will take advantage of the safety afforded by the therapeutic relationship to address hitherto unresolved psychological issues and they may well decide to continue therapy when the presenting issue appears to have been resolved. This is equally true of the client undertaking treatment with Energy Psychology as it would be with more conventional approaches.
In my experience, with the use of Energy Psychology, I find that the majority of my clients' only need to visit between one and three sessions. At this point they invariably feel able to move on from their presenting negative emotional state and further work on the previously presenting issue is unnecessary.
In simple terms Emotional Freedom Techniques protocol is as follows:
- Identifying the presenting issue.
- Measuring the negative emotional intensity of the issue.
- Guiding the client through the EFT recipe which involves tapping on various acupressure points on the body
- Re-evaluating the negative emotional intensity of the issue.
- Repeating the EFT recipe if required.
Whilst this outline is simplified it is not far from what actually happens in the majority of instances when using this technique. It is deceptively simple and the results can be quite remarkable.
As a Personal Development Tool
A great deal of therapy work is centred round resolving personal challenges. Often, when emotional issues are being resolved ones beliefs and value system may be dismantled and now questioned. In this event it might, perhaps, be necessary to find a new direction forward, one that is different from the previous ineffectual way of being in the world.
Could we use Energy Psychology for achieving personal potential?
The technique of using affirmations is not new and has been used for perhaps a couple of hundred years at least. The most well know user of affirmations for healing would probably be Louise Hay. The traditional affirmation is usually contrary to fact and stated as true. The difficulty with this method for the majority of people is that the statement is not believable and as a result loses its ability to positively affect us.
The following exercise is one that I often use to illustrate this point:
Imagine that you are standing in a house, the roof is leaking and the rain is pouring in, you have no food and no money to pay the rent.
Then say to yourself,
I feel safe and secure, satiated and prosperous.
This is the traditional affirmation style and most people would find it incongruent and therefore ineffective. Let's try another, more powerful, way of using this same example with a slight adjustment to the affirmation.
Imagine that you are standing in a house, the roof is leaking and the rain is pouring in, you have no food and no money to pay the rent.
Then say to yourself:
Even though I am standing in this house, and the roof is leaking and the rain is pouring in, and I have no food and no money to pay the rent,
To feel safe, secure, satiated and prosperous.
Does that conjure up a different and more powerful feeling?
The use of the tapping process in Energy Psychology, together with this affirmative choice, can be a valuable tool in personal development and is one of my favourite methods of using Energy Psychology. A protocol has been developed by Dr Patricia Carrington called "The Choices Method" which will be explored further in his synopsis.
Touching briefly on research, in a research article printed in 2003 Steve Wells, an Australian Psychologist in conjunction with other researchers, set out to evaluate the effectiveness of Emotional Freedom Techniques to reduce phobias to small animals. Under laboratory controlled conditions the participants were treated individually with either EFT or Diaphragmatic Breathing.
Those treated with EFT produced significantly greater improvement than did the Diaphragmatic Breathing and this improvement was maintained and possibly enhanced at a six to nine months follow up on the behavioural measure. (www.psychotherapy-center.com/eft_research_phobias.html)
The Basic Recipe Step by Step
Here is the basic technique employed in EFT.
Evaluate feeling towards the situation to be worked on (Use a scale of 0-10 to indicate subjective units of distress, 0 being no negative emotional intensity and 10 the maximum negative emotional intensity that you can experience right now).
- Rub Sore Spot (SS) and say
- "Even though I have this …… (Problem)……I totally and completely love and accept myself".
- Repeat 3 times
Tapping and say, "this …… (Problem)……"
- Eye brow
- Side of eye
- Under eye
- Under nose
- Chin point
- Collar bone
- ·Under arm
- Index finger
- Middle finger
- Little finger
- Karate chop
Repeat Step 3
- Tap Gamut Point on hand and:
- Close eyes
- Open and look down to the right
- Look down to the left
- Look around in a circle
- Look around in a circle in the other direction
- Hum 'Happy Birthday to you'
- Count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
- Hum 'Happy Birthday to you'
Repeat Step 3
Evaluate feeling towards situation worked on now, after the use of EFT (Using SUD Scale 0-10).
Repeat all steps if necessary to bring evaluation down, or do the collar bone breathing
technique to bring it down.
Once satisfied with the EFT results lock the result in by:
Leaving your head straight, tapping the gamut point, look from the ground to the ceiling taking about 6 seconds and repeating an affirmation like, "I now let go".
EFT and Reflexology
You may be interested to know which organs the tapping points relate to. If you are a reflexologist working on a client's feet, you could do EFT at the same time. By stimulating the equivalent point used in EFT on the client's feet, and having the client hold on to the negative thought that is causing the emotional difficulty, you should be able to affect a similar result to using EFT in the normal way.
Tapping points and their corresponding organs:
- Top of Head - Governing Vessel
- Eye Brow - Bladder
- Side of Eye - Gall Bladder
- Under Eye - Stomach
- Under Nose - Governing Vessel
- Chin -
- Collarbone - Kidney
- Under Breast - Liver
- Under Arm - Spleen
- Thumb - Lung
- Index Finger - Large Intestine
- Middle Finger - Circulation/Sex
- Little Finger - Heart
- 4th&5th Knuckle - Triple Heater
- Side of Hand - Small Intestine
EFT with Massage
Further useful meridian points exist all along the spine. Many of the EFT tapping points can be accessed by tapping on the outer edges of the spine whilst giving a massage. If you are a massage therapist you may be able to have your client hold on to a thought that is causing some negative emotional disturbance and tap either side of the spine as they hold that thought. This has the potential to help alleviate issues in the same way as EFT. This method is ideal if you are working with a partner, friend or children. Just ask them what went wrong in their day and gently tap as you deliver the massage.
Using EFT Without Tapping
There may be occasions that tapping is not appropriate. Such situations may occur when individuals are particularly sensitive due to their innate sensitivity, eg children or the aged, or where perhaps an individual has had an injury. Perhaps you don't like the tapping process for some reason and would prefer something gentler.
There is another approach that still uses the EFT tapping points but instead of tapping involves simply touching the meridian point and breathing a full respiration before moving on to the next point. This technique has been developed by John H. Diepold, Jr., Ph.D. and is called simply, Touch and Breathe (TAB) ©.
To quote Diepold:
"The TAB procedure is easily inserted into any meridian based psychotherapy in place of tapping. This includes treatment of all acupoints in a Major treatment sequence, the 9 Gamut treatment, the Eye Roll treatment, and all treatments for Psychological Reversal and neurological organization that do not use the NLR area. All treatments are done while the patient is attuned to their problem.
For treatment of any given acupoint, the patient is directed to lightly touch the acupoint (usually with 1 to 4 fingers depending on the location), AND "Take one full respiration" while maintaining contact at the treatment site. Afterwards, simply move to the next treatment point or procedure.
For treatment with the 9 Gamut sequence, have the patient lightly touch the Gamut spot, AND "Take one full respiration" while maintaining contact at the Gamut spot. Then have patient proceed through the 9 Gamut sequence while maintaining contact at the Gamut spot and breathing normally. (The reader unfamiliar with the 9 Gamut treatment is referred to Durlacher (1994), Callahan & Callahan (1996), and Gallo (1999), for a detailed description of the procedure.)
For the Eye Roll treatment, have the patient lightly touch the Gamut spot, AND "Take one full respiration" while maintaining contact at the Gamut spot. Then have patient proceed through the Eye Roll treatment while maintaining contact at the Gamut spot and breathing normally. In the Eye Roll treatment the patient first closes than opens their eyes, then they look directly down at the floor. They are then instructed to take 5 to 7 seconds to roll their eyes slowly upward to the ceiling.
For the Collarbone Breathing Treatment (CB2), have the patient touch the collarbone spot (K-27) with 2 fingers of one hand, and lightly touch the Gamut spot with 2 fingers of the other hand. Begin each sequence of breathing positions (for fingers and knuckles) with "Breathe normally, one full respiration". In lieu of making 5 taps on the Gamut Spot for each breathing position, have the patient gently maintain touch at the Gamut spot for 2 seconds at each breathing position. (The reader unfamiliar with CB2 is referred to Callahan (1990) and Gallo (1999) for a detailed description of the procedures.) This author uses a modified breathing pattern when using CB2 which incorporates forced-in and forced-out breath positions based on the original procedures used by Blaich (1988 ). "
"This author has found only one relative disadvantage in using TAB. One full respiration takes a few seconds longer at each treatment site compared to 5 quick taps. However, it is believed that the few extra seconds in total treatment time is well worth the investment given the energetic connection and patient satisfaction."
The NLR point referred to by Diepold is the psychological reversal point. That is, the sore spot, or where used in its place, the tapping of the karate chop point.
Surrogate Tapping with EFT
It may occur that for one reason or another you are not able to make physical contact with the person with whom you wish to work. For example, you may know, or be asked to, work with someone that is bedridden in a hospital. You may not physically be able to be with that person. Perhaps you would like to work with a person whose belief system does not allow you to work with them directly. Another possibility is that you may wish to work with a young child, a baby, who is too small for you work on with the tapping technique. Yet another situation is offering the healing of EFT to an animal in distress. In all of these circumstances, surrogate tapping will be useful.
In surrogate tapping with EFT you simply imagine that you are the person that you wish to work with. In doing the tapping on yourself on behalf of the other person, use their name as part of the setup phrase. For example, assume that there is a 12 month old baby suffering from a condition that prevents the baby from settling at night. The child's name is Francis. I would be as specific about the issue as possible and use the child's name in the process. In this instance I might use the setup phrase, "Even though Francis has colic and it is keeping her awake at night, she totally and completely accepts herself". I would then imagine that I am Francis and I would tap on myself using the reminder phrase, "Colic is keeping her awake at night".
In other words, we would use EFT in exactly the same way as normal, except that we imagine becoming the person for whom the treatment is meant. There are many examples recorded of success with this method.
The question is sometimes asked, "Do I need to ask permission from a higher power to do this? It is my belief that if your intention is for the betterment of the person concerned, then it is not necessary to ask permission of a higher power.
Using EFT During Meditation
I have used EFT very effectively during meditation for a number of years. I have noticed, and it is well known, that on occasion in meditation, emotions will arise, appearing from nowhere for no apparent reason. Sometimes the emotions are positive and other times they can be negative. For meditation to be effective one should be able to observe the emotions with detachment, this takes a great deal of practice, sometimes years. This means neither favouring the pleasant emotions, nor avoiding the negative emotions. Whilst in meditation, one's focus of attention can be on experiencing the emotions as they arise. Any time some negative emotional intensity is felt in the body, even though its cause may not be known, it can be neutralised by tapping on the EFT points. In my experience this does not seem to interrupt the meditation and if anything allows the meditation to go deeper.
The Tearless Trauma Technique
The researcher, psychiatrist and psychoanalyst, R.D. Laing suggested that if we were to find ourselves in prison, and we happened to notice that the door had been left open, we would be making a quick exit and not worrying about how we got there in the first place. He was of course suggesting that if we have the opportunity to escape from our psychological suffering then we should simply take the escape route and not be concerned with how we got into the mess in the first place.
Similarly, if one has a method of relieving the negative intensity of a trauma without reliving all of the suffering that caused it, then we should be taking advantage of that method. The Tearless Trauma Technique is such a method, this is how it works.
Firstly we ask our client to identify a specific traumatic event. The event should be as specific as possible. For example, "The time my father locked me in the cupboard", would be preferable to, "My father abused me". Being even more specific is useful here, for example, "The time that I was terrified when my father locked me in the cupboard".
Secondly we would ask our client to guess what their emotional intensity would be if they were to recall the incident in its entirety. This guess is just a guide, and invariably with such traumatic events the intensity is around 10 on the SUD Scale. In fact the client may not even be able to talk about the event. We don't want the individual to go right into the event, only imagine what it would be like if they did.
The next step is to ask the client to give the incident a phrase that can be used in the EFT setup and reminder process. In this case it might be "The time I was locked in the cupboard", an even better phrase would be more specific and might be, "The time I was terrified when locked in the cupboard".
After using the phrase with a round of tapping ask the client to guess what intensity the event might have now, if it were recalled in detail.
Repeat the process until your client guesses that clearly recalling the incident in detail would result in a very low SUD Score or a score of zero. When you reach this point, ask the client to vividly recall the incident in detail and work with them in the normal way to complete the process.
Following the process in this way is usually helpful in tackling extremely painful emotional issues without the emotional suffering and distress that goes with it. Another effective and similar process is the Movie Technique.
The Movie Technique or the Tell the Story Technique
In a similar vein to the previous techniques, we ask our client to identify a particular traumatic event, however this time we ask them to tell it as a story.
As an example I worked some years ago with a young man who had tried to commit suicide. Following the attempt he had had serious bouts of depression. The event itself was too painful to for him to discuss and so I started by tapping on, "Even though this is too difficult to discuss". When we had taken the edge off of the issue in this way I had him start at the beginning of his story, prior to the traumatic event, the time when everything was still going okay for him.
He progressed through his story and I instructed him to stop as soon as he reached a point where there was any emotional intensity at all. At this point I would use EFT to resolve the negative emotional charge raised by the issue and he would continue his story until he reached the next point of emotional intensity. Each time we stopped we would reach another aspect of the overall issue.
Each time we finished working on an emotional issue, I would ask him to start back at the beginning of his story and work through it again. When we had finished the story I had him start at the beginning once again and he got stuck only once. This was an issue that had been missed on the way through the story previously. At this point my client was able to talk about the incident as if he was a shopping trip and all of the negative emotional intensity had been removed from the event.
To conclude I asked my client to vividly imagine the event as clearly as possible, with all the feeling and emotion that went with it in order to recreate the original negative emotional intensity. When this failed, I concluded that the matter was resolved. Many years later I learnt that indeed it had been resolved and no reoccurrence of his previous depression had occurred.
The main benefits of this method are:
It is easy to perform and, because the client talks a lot during the process, it often parallels what clients consider "real therapy." Thus the perception of EFT's "weirdness" is minimized.
- The "story" provides a built in procedure for finding aspects.
- It can be used either as a primary technique or as a way to test your results.
- It allows the issue to unfold as gently as possible.
- The client gives you solid information along the way that allows you to know how you are progressing".
The Choices Method
EFT Choices is a technique developed by Patricia Carrington in the
The technique, as the name suggests, involves making a choice as part of the setup phrase.
I have discovered that when we eliminate a client's negative emotional intensity toward a problem the issue is invariable considered resolved and often it is. This is true when we consider at a client who has spent considerable time with us to work through an issue and all of the negative emotional intensity appears to be alleviated. Sometimes a few minor issues may arise that require a minimal amount of tapping to resolve and it can now be said that the process was successful.
What happens when the client leaves us and returns to the world, how the client integrates the emotional release in their everyday lives is another matter. It is at this point that the choices method becomes valuable in the therapeutic relationship in assisting the client to actually taking the next step of changing their lives as a result of the psychological changes that have occurred.
For example, my client has come to see me for a weight loss issue and the various rounds of tapping have been directed at the suspected reasons for the weight issue such as:
'Even though I eat when I am bored'
'Even though I feel deprived when I don't eat'
'Even though I don't need it'
'Even though I am so tempted'
'Even though I have this empty feeling'
'Even though when I pick up the phone I eat'
'Even though I have got to feel full to be finished'
'Even though I am not being good enough'
At some point, after working with these negative emotional issues, all the negative emotional energy appears to be resolved, but what is it that ensures that the client, on leaving the session, is able to make changes to his/her life that will reflect the changes achieved in the session?
This is where a choices phrase can be used, and this is how we do it:
Firstly we identify, in the clients own words, the present situation. This can take some time and it is important to take the time to get the wording correct. I cannot stress enough the importance of ensuring that the wording best describes the clients 'feeling' about the situation as it presently exists. I usually do this by asking the client how true the statement about the present situation is using the one to ten scale, ten being very true and one not very true at all. If you don't get a ten keep working on it.
In the example above the client chose the phrase,
'Even though I am fed up with being inactive and insecure'.
This seemed to sum up my client's present experience but I was not convinced that it had the maximum intensity of feeling that could be achieved.
We kept on working and finally we settled on,
'Even though I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure'.
Now that really hit home!
This summed up the present situation perfectly for my client, the question now was, what is the opposite too that? What is it that the client would rather have in their experience?
After some time we came up with, 'to be active, slim and confident'.
These two phases are put together to make a choices statement:
'Even though I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure
To be active, slim and confident'
The choices phrase can be used in the session with the client and I invariably use it as homework for the client. I simply ask the client to tap on the choices phrase twice a day, once in the morning and once in the evening, without making any special effort to change behaviour and without any judgement about the statement.
If the choices statement is well constructed it will bring about radical changes in a persons life without any apparent act of will. The statement is working on the sub-conscious level of what is currently held to be true and what I choose to be true as an alternative to that.
Regardless of the apparent progress or otherwise with a choices statement, I ask my clients to stick with the tapping for a month or two. Sudden shifts and changes of behaviour can occur at any time when using this technique, if not immediately.
So, what have we done here and how was the tapping done?
Firstly the steps to using the choices protocol are as follow:
- Identify the negative condition to be dealt with, in our example above, 'I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure'.
- Construct a phrase that is a viable alternative to the problem, in our example, 'To be active, slim and confident'.
- Combine the negative and positive choice with the 'I choose' statement, in our example, 'Even though I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure, I choose, to be active, slim and confident'
- Use the traditional EFT protocol with the Choices Set-Up phrase.
- Do one complete round of EFT using only the negative condition statement, 'I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure'.
- Do one complete round of EFT using only the positive Choices statement, 'I choose to be active, slim and confident'.
- Do one complete round of EFT alternating between the negative condition statement and the positive choices statement as follows:
- Tap the eyebrow point using the negative condition statement, 'I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure'.
- Tap the side of eye point using the positive Choices statement, 'I choose to be active, slim and confident'.
- Tap the under the eye point using the negative condition statement, 'I am disgusted at being fat, inactive and insecure' and so on.
- Continue to alternate between the negative condition and the positive Choices statement for each tapping point finishing on the positive choice.
Patricia Carrington recommends commencement of tapping always on the negative phrase, this is what makes EFT so powerful, and then follow with the positive choices statement.
When using the short-cut EFT method one automatically ends on a negative point in tapping and it is necessary to add a tapping point to finish on a positive outcome or emotion (recommended).
References used for this article and suggested further reading:
Tapping the Healer Within - Dr. Roger Callahan
How to Create Positive Choices in Energy Psychology - Dr. Patricia Carrington
Emotional Freedom Techniques, The Manual - Gary Craig (Downloadable)
New Energy Therapies - Dr. David Lake and Steve Wells
Energy Healing in Minutes - Valerie and Paul Lynch
The Promise of Energy Psychology - David Feinstein, Donna Eden and Gary Craig
Finding the Energy to Heal - Maggie Phillips
EMDR, Eye Movement Desensitisation and Reprocessing - Francine Shapiro
Six Pillars of Energy Medicine, Clinical Strengths of a Complimentary Paradigm - David Feinstein, Ph.D., Donna Eden (http://www.innersource.net/energy_medicine/articles_em/six_pillars_energy_medicine.htm)
Energy Psychology in Disaster Relief - David Feinstein (http://www.innersource.net/energy_psych/articles/ep_energy-trauma-treatment.htm)
For more information about E.F.T. use these links:
Gary Craig - http://www.emofree.com/
Patricia Carrington - http://www.eftupdate.com/
Dr. Joseph Mercola - www.mercola.com/forms/eftcourse.htm